VB Magic

2011/08/10

Azure Queues

I’ve been learning about using Queues in Azure and thought the best way to learn was to start writing an application to test this. My example site will probably only run on single instances; but I decided from the start to write something that will be scalable so came up with the following principle

The client/website can only READ from the database. Anything that requires updating the database must be done via the back end. The client/website must be able to cope with the fact that the requested update will not happen immediately.

The upshot of this, I came up with a job system that uses Azure queues to pass work to the back end worker role. For the moment, I decided to have one queue which handled multiple types of jobs. This lead to me creating a job base class which will cover the common things that the different jobs required. I also decided to use an XML format to describe the job. I need to make sure though that the jobs do not grow bigger than the size allowed for an Azure Queue job (8k).

Below is the base class which is inherited in the actual job classes:

Imports Microsoft.WindowsAzure
Imports Microsoft.WindowsAzure.StorageClient
Imports Microsoft.WindowsAzure.ServiceRuntime

Public MustInherit Class tjob

    ' Enable database access
    Protected Friend _db As New TyranntDB
    ' A place holder for the user information
    Protected Friend _usr As tUser
    ' setup variables to allow for access to Azure Queues
    Protected Friend _storageAccount As CloudStorageAccount
    Protected Friend _jobQueue As CloudQueue

    ' A sample of a job entry in the Queue
    Private sample = <job type="email" user="102">
                         <type/>
                     </job>

    ' the user ID which is used to pull the user information
    Private _userID As Int64

    ' Initialise the job from the XML String
    Public Sub New(jobStr As String)
        Dim jobXML As XElement = XElement.Parse(jobStr)
        _JobType = jobXML.@type
        Dim usrstr As String = jobXML.@userid
        UserID = Convert.ToInt64(usrstr)
    End Sub

    ' Create a blank job, this is used for creating a job to
    ' put onto the queue.
    Public Sub New()
        _JobType = ""
        _userID = -1
    End Sub

    ' Job type. Used to create the correct object.
    Public Property JobType As String

    ' The user ID. If this is being set then it
    ' will look up the user from the database
    Public Property UserID As Integer
        Get
            Return _userID
        End Get
        Set(value As Integer)
            _userID = value
            If _userID > 0 Then
                GetUserDetails()
            End If
        End Set
    End Property

    ' This is the code that "Processes" the job. Each job type must
    ' implement this code.
    Public MustOverride Function Process() As Boolean

    ' A general variable for storing any errors that
    ' occur. If it's empty then no errors are assumed.
    Public Property ErrorMessage As String

    ' This will generate an XML element that describes the job.
    Public MustOverride Function ToXML() As XElement

    ' This will generate a string version of the XML
    ' which describes this job.
    Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
        Return ToXML.ToString
    End Function

    ' This routine will pull the user information from the
    ' database and store the user detals in the _usr object.
    Protected Friend Sub GetUserDetails()
        Dim q = From u In _db.users
              Where u.ID = _userID
              Select u
        If q.Count > 0 Then
            _usr = q.Single
        End If
    End Sub

    ' If the job is being created. This function will add the job
    ' to the Azure Queue.
    Public Sub AddJobToQueue()
        ' Get the azure storage account object.
        _storageAccount = CloudStorageAccount.Parse( RoleEnvironment.GetConfigurationSettingValue(TyranntSupport.Constants.STORAGE_CONNECTION))
        ' Now get the queue client.
        Dim client As CloudQueueClient = _storageAccount.CreateCloudQueueClient
        _jobQueue = client.GetQueueReference(Constants.QUEUE_JOBS)
        ' Create the queue if it doesn't exist.
        _jobQueue.CreateIfNotExist()
        Try
            ' Now add the job details to the queue.
            Dim msg As New CloudQueueMessage(Me.ToString)
            _jobQueue.AddMessage(msg)
        Catch ex As Exception
            _ErrorMessage = ex.Message
        End Try
    End Sub
End Class

The TyranntDB class is an Entity Framework code first class that allows access to the SQL Azure database. Any class prefixed with a t (E.g. tUser) is a database table class. You will notice a Sample variable using XML Literals. This is just as an example to show how that job is formed in XML. Each inherited class will have it’s own sample.

All job classes need to be able to add themselves to the Azure Queue. They also need to be able to access the SQL Azure database. These features were written into the base class. All job classes must also have a way of being “Processed” which meant adding a MustOverride function called Process. They must also be able to export themselves as an XML document which is why the MustOverride function called ToXML is added.

The website uses Forms Authentication to enable it to validate users. But I also have a site specific user table to add extra information too. As this involves updating the database, this is the first “Job” that needs creating:

Public Class tjNewUser
    Inherits tjob

    ' an example of a new user job
    Private sample = <job type="newuser" user="-1">
                         <user name="{username}" email="{user)@{domain}">Full Name</user>
                     </job>

    ' Extra data required by this class
    Public Property userName As String
    Public Property email As String
    Public Property fullName As String

    Public Sub New(jobStr As String)
        ' initialise basic information
        MyBase.New(jobStr)
        Dim jobXML As XElement = XElement.Parse(jobStr)
        ' now initialise new user information
        _userName = jobXML...<user>.@name
        _email = jobXML...<user>.@email
        _fullName = jobXML...<user>.Value
    End Sub

    Public Sub New()
        ' initialise the base information
        MyBase.New()
        JobType = "newuser"
        _userName = ""
        _email = ""
        _fullName = ""
    End Sub

    ' Create the new user in the database
    Public Overrides Function Process() As Boolean
        ' first check to see if the user already exists

        Dim r = From u In _db.users
              Where u.username = _userName
              Select u

        If r.Count > 0 Then
            ' User already exists so do not continue
            ' return true in this case as request
            ' has been processed more than one.
            Return True
        End If
        ' create a new user
        Dim usr As New tUser
        ' populate the generic information
        usr.username = _userName
        usr.email = _email
        usr.fullname = _fullName
        ' now set the user group to be member
        Try
            Dim grp As tUserGroup = _db.GetUserGroup("member")

            If IsNothing(grp) Then
                _db.CreateBaseGroups()
                usr.usergroup = _db.GetUserGroup("member")
            Else
                usr.usergroup = grp
            End If
        Catch ex As Exception
            ErrorMessage = ex.Message
            Return False
        End Try

        ' now save the user
        Try
            _db.users.Add(usr)
            _db.SaveChanges()
        Catch ex As Exception
            ErrorMessage = ex.Message
            Return False
        End Try

        ' Now that the user was sucessfully created,
        ' generate a new user email job
        Dim jb As New tjEmail
        jb.EmailType = "newuser"
        jb.From = "mail@me.uk"
        jb.UserID = usr.ID
        ' Add the job to the Azure job queue
        jb.AddJobToQueue()
        If jb.ErrorMessage = "" Then
            Return True
        Else
            ErrorMessage = jb.ErrorMessage
            Return False
        End If
    End Function

    Public Overrides Function ToXML() As XElement
        Return <job type="newuser" userid=<%= UserID %>>
                   <user name=<%= _userName %> email=<%= _email %>><%= _fullName %></user>
               </job>
    End Function

End Class

I’ve added the extra properties required for adding a new user and the extraction of these properties from the XML. The process function is also created which will create the user row in the users table. Hopefully the comments in the code should explain the process to do this. This routine also makes use of XML Literals which is a VB only thing at time of writing. (For example used in the ToXML and New functions.

As you can see at the end of the processing, we need to send a confirmation email to the user who has created the account. This kind of thing is also ideal for the back end to deal with hence being handled by the job queue system:

Imports System.Net.Mail

Public Class tjEmail
    Inherits tjob

    ' a sample email job
    Private sample = <job type="email" user="102">
                         <email from="mail@me.uk" type="newuser"/>
                     </job>

    ' setup extra information required by this job
    Private _from As String
    Private _emailType As String

    ' The is the from email address
    Public WriteOnly Property From As String
        Set(value As String)
            _from = value
        End Set
    End Property

    ' This will be the email type e.g. newuser
    Public WriteOnly Property EmailType As String
        Set(value As String)
            _emailType = value
        End Set
    End Property

    ' If the job XML already exists this will set up
    ' the information automatically
    Public Sub New(jobStr As String)
        MyBase.new(jobStr)
        Dim jobXML As XElement = XElement.Parse(jobStr)
        _from = jobXML...<email>.@from
        _emailType = jobXML...<email>.@type
    End Sub

    ' Create an empty email job if creating a new job
    Public Sub New()
        MyBase.New()
        JobType = "email"
        _from = ""
        _emailType = ""
    End Sub

    ' Send the email
    Public Overrides Function Process() As Boolean
        Dim email As MailMessage
        ' Generate the correct body of the email
        Select Case _emailType
            Case "newuser"
                email = GenerateNewUserEmail()
            Case Else
                ErrorMessage = String.Format("Email Type [{0}] not recognised", _emailType)
                Return False
        End Select

        ' Now set up the SMTP server client to send the email.
        Dim smtp As New SmtpClient(My.Resources.smtpServer, Integer.Parse(My.Resources.smtpPort))
        ' Pull the smtp login details.
        smtp.Credentials = New Net.NetworkCredential(My.Resources.smtpUser, My.Resources.smtpPass)
        Try
            smtp.Send(email)
        Catch ex As Exception
            ErrorMessage = ex.Message
            Return False
        End Try
        Return True
    End Function

    ' This will generate the subject and body of the newuser email
    Private Function GenerateNewUserEmail() As MailMessage
        Dim email As New MailMessage(_from, _usr.email)
        email.Subject = My.Resources.Resources.TyranntAccountCreated
        email.BodyEncoding = System.Text.Encoding.Unicode
        email.IsBodyHtml = False
        email.Body = String.Format(My.Resources.newUserEmail, _usr.username)
        Return email
    End Function

    Public Overrides Function ToXML() As XElement
        Return <job type="email" userid=<%= UserID %>>
                   <email from=<%= _from %> type=<%= _emailType %>/>
               </job>
    End Function

End Class

The process function in this job will generate an email and pull the smtp server details out of a resource file and depending on the type of email, will take the email body from resources too.

Now these job classes are created, they can be added to the job queue by using {job}.AddJobToQueue() method as shown in the tjNewUser class. But how will they be processed. This is where the WorkerRole comes into play. As all the work is done by the job classes themselves, only a very simple piece of code is required to process the queues:

    Public Overrides Sub Run()

        Trace.WriteLine("TyranntDogsbody entry point called.", "Information")

        ' Loop forever
        While (True)
            ' Get the next message from the queue
            Dim msg As CloudQueueMessage = Nothing
            msg = _jobQueue.GetMessage(TimeSpan.FromSeconds(30))

            If IsNothing(msg) Then
                ' If message doesn't exist then seep for 1 minute
                Thread.Sleep(60000)
            Else
                ' Message exists so process the message
                ProcessMessage(msg)
            End If
        End While
    End Sub

    Private Sub ProcessMessage(msg As CloudQueueMessage)

        Try
            ' Turn the message into an XML element
            Dim xmlMsg As XElement = XElement.Parse(msg.AsString)
            ' Extract the message type from the element
            Dim type As String = xmlMsg.@type

            ' Now we create a job
            Dim job As tjob
            Select Case type
                ' Use the message type to see what kind of job is required
                Case "newuser"
                    job = New tjNewUser(msg.AsString)
                Case "email"
                    job = New tjEmail(msg.AsString)
                Case Else
                    Exit Sub
            End Select
            ' Process the job.
            If job.Process() = True Then
                ' The job succeeded so write a trace message to say this and
                ' delete the message from the queue.
                Trace.WriteLine(String.Format("{0} succeeded", type), "Information")
                _jobQueue.DeleteMessage(msg)
            Else
                ' The job failed so write a trace error message saying why the job failed.
                ' This will leave the job on the queue to be processed again.
                Trace.WriteLine(String.Format("{0} failed: {1} ", type, job.ErrorMessage), "Error")
            End If
        Catch ex As Exception
            ' something big has gone wrong so write this out as an error trace message.
            Trace.WriteLine(String.Format("Failed to parse xml message: [{0}]", msg.AsString), "Error")
            Exit Sub
        End Try
    End Sub

As you can see from the above code. There very little extra code required to process the job as all the work is done inside the job class.

This may be refined in the future but I hope it’s helpful for some people.

Jas

1 Comment »

  1. […] a previous post I showed using Azure Storage Queues being used to send messages between a Webrole and a Worker […]

    Pingback by Windows Azure, Service Bus Queue between Webrole and Worker role « VB Magic — 2012/11/07 @ 6:23 pm


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